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Old testament by Yale Courses

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Lecture 1. The Parts of the Whole

0h45m

Lecture 2. The Hebrew Bible in Its Ancient Near Eastern Setting: Biblical Religion in Context

0h46m

Lecture 3. The Hebrew Bible in Its Ancient Near Eastern Setting: Genesis 1-4 in Context

0h47m

Lecture 4. Doublets and Contradictions, Seams and Sources

0h47m

Lecture 5. Critical Approaches to the Bible: Introduction to Genesis 12-50

0h48m

Lecture 6. Biblical Narrative: The Stories of the Patriarchs (Genesis 12-36)

0h49m

Lecture 7. Israel in Egypt: Moses and the Beginning of Yahwism (Genesis 37- Exodus 4)

0h46m

Lecture 8. Exodus: From Egypt to Sinai (Exodus 5-24, 32; Numbers)

0h47m

Lecture 9. The Priestly Legacy: Cult and Sacrifice, Purity and Holiness in Leviticus and Numbers

0h48m

Lecture 10. Biblical Law: The Three Legal Corpora of JE (Exodus), P (Leviticus and Numbers) and D

0h50m

Lecture 11. On the Steps of Moab: Deuteronomy

0h47m

Lecture 12. The Deuteronomistic History: Life in the Land (Joshua and Judges)

0h50m

Lecture 13. The Deuteronomistic History: Prophets and Kings (1 and 2 Samuel)

0h49m

Lecture 14. The Deuteronomistic History: Response to Catastrophe (1 and 2 Kings)

0h51m

Lecture 15. Hebrew Prophecy: The Non-Literary Prophets

0h49m

Lecture 16. Literary Prophecy: Amos

0h48m

Lecture 17. Literary Prophecy: Hosea and Isaiah

0h48m

Lecture 18. Literary Prophecy: Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum and Habbakuk

0h48m

Lecture 19. Literary Prophecy: Perspectives on the Exile (Jeremiah, Ezekiel and 2nd Isaiah)

0h47m

Lecture 20. Responses to Suffering and Evil: Lamentations and Wisdom Literature

0h52m

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Course content

0h45m

Lecture 1. The Parts of the Whole

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

This lecture provides an introduction to the literature of the Hebrew Bible and its structure and contents. Common misconceptions about the Bible are dispelled: the Bible is a library of books from diverse times and places rather than a single, unified book; biblical narratives contain complex themes and realistic characters and are not "pious parables" about saintly persons; the Bible is a literarily sophisticated narrative not for children; the Bible is an account of the odyssey of a people rather than a book of theology; and finally, the Bible was written by many human contributors with diverse perspectives and viewpoints.

00:00 - Chapter 1. Introduction to the Hebrew Bible and Its Radical Ideas
16:10 - Chapter 2. Common Myths about the Bible
29:33 - Chapter 3. An Overview of the Structure of the Bible
40:17 - Chapter 4. Course Organization

Complete course materials are available at the Yale Online website: online.yale.edu


This course was recorded in Fall 2006.

0h46m

Lecture 2. The Hebrew Bible in Its Ancient Near Eastern Setting: Biblical Religion in Context

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

In this lecture, the Hebrew Bible is understood against the background of Ancient Near Eastern culture. Drawing from and critiquing the work of Yehezkel Kaufmann, the lecture compares the religion of the Hebrew Bible with the cultures of the Ancient Near East. Two models of development are discussed: an evolutionary model of development in which the Hebrew Bible is continuous with Ancient Near Eastern culture and a revolutionary model of development in which the Israelite religion is radically discontinuous with Ancient Near Eastern culture. At stake in this debate is whether the religion of the Hebrew Bible is really the religion of ancient Israel.

00:00 - Chapter 1. The Bible as a Product of Religious and Cultural Revolution
08:16 - Chapter 2. Kaufman's Characterization of "Pagan Religion"
22:16 - Chapter 3. Kaufman's Characterization of One Sovereign God
35:13 - Chapter 4. Continuity or Radical Break?

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu

This course was recorded in Fall 2006.

0h47m

Lecture 3. The Hebrew Bible in Its Ancient Near Eastern Setting: Genesis 1-4 in Context

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

In the first of a series of lectures on the book of Genesis, the basic elements of biblical monotheism are compared with Ancient Near Eastern texts to show a non-mythological, non-theogonic conception of the deity, a new conception of the purpose and meaning of human life, nature, magic and myth, sin and evil, ethics (including the universal moral law) and history. The two creation stories are explored and the work of Nahum Sarna is introduced.

00:00 - Chapter 1. The Creation Story in "Enuma Elish"
12:44 - Chapter 2. The Creation Stories in Genesis
28:30 - Chapter 3. Creation as God Imposing Order on the World
38:17 - Allusion to and Resonances of Ancient Near Eastern Themes

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu

This course was recorded in Fall 2006.

0h47m

Lecture 4. Doublets and Contradictions, Seams and Sources

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

This lecture continues the discussion on Genesis, including the familiar accounts of Cain and Abel, the Flood and Noahide covenant. The story of Cain and Abel expresses the notion of the God-endowed sanctity of human life and a "universal moral law" governing the world. Examination of the contradictions and doublets in the flood story leads to a discussion of the complex composition and authorship of the Pentateuch. These features as well as anachronisms challenge traditional religious convictions of Moses as the author of the first five books of the Bible.

00:00 - Chapter 1. The Taming of Enkidu in The "Epic of Gilgamesh"
05:44 - The Story of Enkidu as Parallel to the Second Story of Creation in Genesis
21:29 - Major Themes in the Story of Cain and Abel
24:02 - Comparing Mesopotamian, Semitic and Israelite Flood Stories
35:32 - Contradictions and Doublets in the Flood Story in Genesis 6-9
42:42 - Implications of the Repetitions and Contradictions throughout the Bible

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu

This course was recorded in Fall 2006.

0h48m

Lecture 5. Critical Approaches to the Bible: Introduction to Genesis 12-50

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

This lecture introduces the modern critical study of the Bible, including source theories and Wellhausen's Documentary Hypothesis, as well as form criticism and tradition criticism. The main characteristics of each biblical source (J, E, P, and D) according to classic source theory are explained. This lecture also raises the question of the historical accuracy of the Bible and the relation of archaeology to the biblical record.

00:00 - Chapter 1. Wellhausen's Documentary Hypothesis and Characteristics of Biblical Sources
16:05 - Chapter 2. The Purpose of Literary, Source and Historical Criticism
27:15 - Chapter 3. The Generations of the Patriarchs and Matriarchs
34:42 - Chapter 4. Critical Methodology Used in Biblical Scholarship

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu

This course was recorded in Fall 2006.

0h49m

Lecture 6. Biblical Narrative: The Stories of the Patriarchs (Genesis 12-36)

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

This lecture continues with a review of scholarly views on the historical accuracy of the Bible. The narratives of the patriarchs and matriarchs are introduced and the covenant between Abraham and God--which ultimately leads to the formation of a nation--is explained. Central themes of the patriarchal stories include: God's call to Abraham, God's promise of a blessed and fruitful nation, threats to this promise (including the story of the binding of Isaac for sacrifice). Finally, after a significant character transformation, the third patriarch Jacob becomes Yisrael ("he who struggles with God").

00:00 - Chapter 1. Scholarly Opinion on the Historical Accuracy of the Bible
13:05 - Chapter 2. Divine Command and Divine Promise: Truths Freed from the Burden of Historicity
20:06 - Chapter 3. The Covenant between God and Abraham
25:38 - Chapter 4. The Story of Isaac
39:12 - chapter 5. Jacob the Trickster

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu

This course was recorded in Fall 2006.

0h46m

Lecture 7. Israel in Egypt: Moses and the Beginning of Yahwism (Genesis 37- Exodus 4)

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

The book of Genesis concludes with the story of Joseph and the descent of the 12 tribes into Egypt, setting the stage for the Exodus in which God is seen as redeemer and liberator. Moses is the first in a line of apostolic (messenger) prophets and Yahwism is initiated. Mark Smith's thesis describing the emergence of Israelite religion through a process of convergence and divergence is presented as an alternative to the evolutionary-revolutionary dichotomy presented in Lecture 2.

00:00 - Chapter 1. One Who Wrestles: The Significance of Jacob's Name Change
03:04 - Chapter 2. The 12 Sons of Jacob: Joseph and His Brothers
10:06 - Chapter 3. Exodus: Sequel to Genesis and Myth of Origins for a Nation
21:14 - Chapter 4. Moses's Legendary Birth Story and Early Life
26:43 - Chapter 5. Descriptions of God in the Bible
38:39 - Chapter 6. Smith's Convergence and Divergence Model

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu

This course was recorded in Fall 2006.

0h47m

Lecture 8. Exodus: From Egypt to Sinai (Exodus 5-24, 32; Numbers)

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

This lecture traces the account of the Exodus (and the origin of the Passover festival as a historicization of older nature festivals) and Israel's liberation from bondage under Pharaoh. The story reaches its climax with the covenant concluded between God and Israel through Moses at Sinai. Drawing heavily on the work of Jon Levenson, the lecture examines Ancient Near Eastern parallels to the Sinaitic covenant and describes the divine-human relationship (an intersection of law and love) that the covenant seeks to express.

00:00 - Chapter 1. Passover as a Historicization of Earlier Ritual Practices
06:51 - Chapter 2. The Exodus as a Paradigm for Collective Salvation
19:59 - Chapter 3. The Mosaic Covenant between God and Israel at Sinai
39:15 - Chapter 4. Patience with the Israelites: Towards the Promised Land

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu

This course was recorded in Fall 2006.

0h48m

Lecture 9. The Priestly Legacy: Cult and Sacrifice, Purity and Holiness in Leviticus and Numbers

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

In this lecture, the Priestly source (P) found primarily in Leviticus and Numbers is introduced. The symbolism of the sacrificial cult and purity system, the differences between moral and ritual impurity, as well as holiness and purity are explained within the Priestly context. The concept of holiness and imitatio dei, or human imitation of God, is explained.

00:00 - Chapter 1. Introduction to the Israelite Sanctuary
09:19 - Chapter 2. The Priestly Conceptions of Holiness and Time
13:36 - Chapter 3. Holiness, Purity, Moral and Ritual Impurity
23:30 - Chapter 4. Ritual Purification, Sacrifices and Offerings, and "Imitatio Dei"
29:13 - Chapter 5. Moral Impurity, Defiling the Land and Purification
42:34 - Chapter 6. Dietary Law and the Holiness Code

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu

This course was recorded in Fall 2006.

0h50m

Lecture 10. Biblical Law: The Three Legal Corpora of JE (Exodus), P (Leviticus and Numbers) and D

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

This lecture introduces biblical law in a comparative approach that identifies similarities and differences between Israelite law and other Ancient Near Eastern legal traditions, such as the Code of Hammurabi. Distinctive features of Israelite law are explained as flowing from the claim of divine authorship.

00:00 - Chapter 1. The Initiation of God's Laws, Rules and Ordinances at Sinai
03:38 - Chapter 2. The Decalogues
11:42 - Chapter 3. Biblical Law in Comparison with Ancient Near East Legal Collections
29:58 - Chapter 4. Radical, Characteristic Features of Israelite Law
40:17 - Chapter 5. Reversing the Code: Sanctity of Human Life

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu

This course was recorded in Fall 2006.

0h47m

Lecture 11. On the Steps of Moab: Deuteronomy

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

This lecture, focusing on Moses's final address to the Israelites and transfer of authority to Joshua, describes Moses as the paradigmatic leader of biblical tradition. The structure of Deuteronomy is then outlined. Attention is given to updated and revised laws within Deuteronomy which exemplify the activity of adaptive interpretation of earlier tradition. The main themes of Deuteronomy are presented and include the notion of God's chosen people and chosen city, social justice, covenantal love and the centralization of cultic worship.

00:00 - Chapter 1. Moses as the Paradigmatic Leader of Biblical Tradition
08:46 - Chapter 2. Basic Structure of Deuteronomy
22:16 - Chapter 3. Updated and Revised Laws According to New Ideas
37:31 - Chapter 4. Major Themes in Deuteronomy

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu

This course was recorded in Fall 2006.

0h50m

Lecture 12. The Deuteronomistic History: Life in the Land (Joshua and Judges)

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

This lecture concludes the study of Deuteronomy and traces the contribution of the Deuteronomistic School: a historiosophy according to which Israel's fortunes are dependent upon and an indicator of her fidelity to the covenant. The books of the Former Prophets are introduced with attention to their historical and geographical context. The book of Joshua's account of Israel's conquest of Canaan is contrasted with scholarly accounts of Israel's emergence in Canaan and formation as a nation state.

00:00 - Chapter 1. Deuteronomy: A Capstone to the Pentateuchal Narrative
06:05 - Chapter 2. Source Theory and the Pentateuch
13:26 - Chapter 3. Introduction to the Former Prophets
21:54 - Chapter 4. Geographical Setting and Its Historical Implications
27:39 - Chapter 5. Structure of Joshua
34:29 - Chapter 6. Three Scholarly Models for the Emergence of the Nation State of Israel

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu

This course was recorded in Fall 2006.

0h49m

Lecture 13. The Deuteronomistic History: Prophets and Kings (1 and 2 Samuel)

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

The transition from a tribal society under the leadership of elders and eventually charismatic "judges" to a nation under a monarch is traced through the books of Judges and 1 and 2 Samuel. Early stories of local heroes are woven together into a larger history that conforms to the exilic perspectives of the Deuteronomistic School. An extended look at representations of Saul and David (including God's covenant with David) reveal historical shifts and some ambivalence about monarchy and the ideal form of leadership.

00:00 - Chapter 1. Distinguishing between Israelis and Israelites
01:53 - Chapter 2. An Alliance of Tribes
05:46 - Chapter 3. The Book of Judges
23:05 - Chapter 4. Samuel, a Transition Figure and the Last in a Line of Prophet Judges
32:46 - Chapter 5. Saul and David as Representations of Ambivalence about Monarchy
45:14 - Chapter 6. The Davidic Covenant

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu

This course was recorded in Fall 2006.

0h51m

Lecture 14. The Deuteronomistic History: Response to Catastrophe (1 and 2 Kings)

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

The tension between covenant theology, emphasizing the conditional Mosaic convenant from Mt. Sinai, and royal theology emphasizing the unconditional covenant with David in his palace on Mt. Zion, is traced. Following Solomon's death, the united kingdom separated into a northern and a southern kingdom (named Israel and Judah respectively), the former falling to the Assyrians in 722 and the latter to the Babylonians in 586. Analysis of the Deuteronomistic School's response to these historical crises and subsequent exile to Babylonia is evidenced through redaction criticism.

00:00 - Chapter 1. The Uncompromising Honesty of the Story of David
10:29 - Chapter 2. Tensions in Kings I and II
31:21 - Chapter 3. The Separation of the Kingdom Following Solomon's Death
42:10 - Chapter 4. Historiosophy of the Deuteronomistic School

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu

This course was recorded in Fall 2006.

0h49m

Lecture 15. Hebrew Prophecy: The Non-Literary Prophets

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

This lecture concludes the discussion of the Deuteronomistic historian's efforts to show that idolatry and associated sins lead to God's wrath and periods of trouble. The remainder of the lecture is an introduction to the phenomenon of Israelite prophecy which included ecstatic prophecy and prophetic guilds. The non-literary prophets of the historical books of the Bible and their various roles (as God's zealot; as conscience of the king) are examined.

00:00 - Chapter 1. Concluding Remarks about the Deuteronomistic Historian
08:33 - Chapter 2. Introduction to the Phenomenon of Israelite Prophecy
21:25 - Chapter 3. Roles Played by Prophets: Yes Men Versus True Prophets
28:20 - Chapter 4. Roles Played by Prophets: God's Zealots, Kingmakers, King-Breakers and Miracle Workers
43:01 - Chapter 5. Roles Played by Prophets: Conscience of the King

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu

This course was recorded in Fall 2006.

0h48m

Lecture 16. Literary Prophecy: Amos

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

This lecture introduces the literary prophets of both the northern and southern kingdoms. The prophetic books are anthologies of oracles the sequence of which is often determined by literary rather than chronological considerations. This lecture studies the literary features and major themes of classical Israelite prophecy as evidenced in particular in the book of the eighth-century northern prophet Amos. The prophets denounced moral decay and false piety as directly responsible for the social injustice that outrages God. While the Deuteronomist blames the nation's misfortunes on acts of idolatry, the prophets stress that the nation will be punished for everyday incidents of immorality. The literary prophets counterbalance their warnings with messages of great hope and consolation.

00:00 - Chapter 1. An Introduction to the Literary Prophets
05:32 - Chapter 2. Structure of and Literary Features in the Book of Amos
22:29 - Chapter 3. Major Themes in the Book of Amos
33:51 - Chapter 4. Differences between Deuteronomistic and Prophetic Interpretations of Israel's History

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu

This course was recorded in Fall 2006.

0h48m

Lecture 17. Literary Prophecy: Hosea and Isaiah

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

The lecture focuses on the eighth-century northern prophet Hosea, a linguistically difficult book set against the backdrop of the expansionist Assyrian Empire. Hosea's marriage symbolizes Israel's relationship with God and serves to remind Israel of God's forbearance and Israel's obligations and pledge to loyalty under the covenant at Sinai. The second half of the lecture shifts to Isaiah and his emphasis on the Davidic Covenant, rather than the Mosaic one, a key distinction between him and Hosea. Themes in Isaiah include the salvation of a remnant, Israel's election to a mission and an eschatology that centers around a "messiah" (anointed) king of the house of David.

00:00 - Chapter 1. Historical Background for and Major Themes of the Book of Hosea
13:29 - Chapter 2. Doom and Hope as Two Conceptions of Covenant
18:00 - Chapter 3. Historical Background for and Structure of the Book of Isaiah
25:55 - Chapter 4. Emphasis on the Davidic Covenant
36:47 - Chapter 5. Major Themes in the Book of Isaiah

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu

This course was recorded in Fall 2006.

0h48m

Lecture 18. Literary Prophecy: Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum and Habbakuk

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

Micah, eighth-century southern prophet and contemporary of Isaiah, is discussed. Structurally, the book of Micah alternates three prophecies of doom and destruction and three prophecies of hope and restoration. Micah attacks the doctrine of the inviolability of Zion and employs the literary form of a covenant lawsuit (or riv) in his denunciation of the nation. Several short prophetic books are also discussed: Zephaniah; the Book of Nahum, depicting the downfall of Assyria and distinguished for its vivid poetic style; and the book of Habbakuk, which contains philosophical musings on God's behavior. The final part of the lecture turns to the lengthy book of Jeremiah. A prophet at the time of the destruction and exile, Jeremiah predicted an end to the exile after 70 years and a new covenant that would be inscribed on the hearts of the nation.

00:00 - Chapter 1. Structure of the Book of Micah
05:26 - Chapter 2. Common Paradoxes in Prophetic Writings
10:40 - Chapter 3. The Book of Zephaniah
14:37 - Chapter 4. The Book of Nahum
19:46 - Chapter 5. The Book of Habakkuk
24:52 - Chapter 6. Structure and Features of the Book of Jeremiah
39:11 - Chapter 7. Unique Features of Jeremiah's Message of Consolation

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu

This course was recorded in Fall 2006.

0h47m

Lecture 19. Literary Prophecy: Perspectives on the Exile (Jeremiah, Ezekiel and 2nd Isaiah)

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

The destruction of Jerusalem challenged the faith of the nation. What was the meaning of this event and how could such tremendous evil and suffering be reconciled with the nature of God himself? Professor Hayes shows how Israel's prophets attempted to answer this question, turning the nation's defeat and despair into an occasion for renewing faith in Israel's God. The lecture continues with an in-depth study of the book of Ezekiel. Ezekiel's denunciations of Jerusalem are among the most lurid and violent in the Bible and he concludes that destruction is the only possible remedy. Ezekiel's visions include God's withdrawal from Jerusalem to be with his people in exile, and his ultimate return. Ezekiel's use of dramatic prophetic signs, his rejection of collective divine punishment and assertion of individual responsibility are discussed. The last part of the lecture turns to Second Isaiah and the famous "servant songs" that find a universal significance in Israel's suffering.

00:00 - Chapter 1. Structure and Tone of the Book of Ezekiel
09:53 - Chapter 2. Ezekiel's Denunciations of Jerusalem and Rejection of Collective Punishment
17:54 - Chapter 3. The Sometimes Contradictory Nature of the Biblical Text
21:39 - Chapter 4. Ezekiel's Interpretation of the Final Destruction of Jerusalem
31:58 - Chapter 5.Major Themes in Second Isaiah
38:00 - Chapter 6. Second Isaiah's Servant Songs

Complete c

0h52m

Lecture 20. Responses to Suffering and Evil: Lamentations and Wisdom Literature

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

This lecture begins with the Book of Lamentations, a short book of dirges that laments the destruction of Jerusalem and moves on to introduce the third and final section of the Hebrew Bible - the Ketuvim, or "Writings." This section of the Bible contains three books that exemplify the ancient Near Eastern literary genre of "Wisdom" -- Proverbs, Job and Ecclesiastes. Proverbs reinforces the Deuteronomistic idea of divine retributive justice according to which the good prosper and the evil are punished. The conventional assumption of a moral world order is attacked in the Book of Job. The book explores whether people will sustain virtue when suffering and afflicted, and brings charges of negligence and mismanagement against God for failing to punish the wicked and allowing the righteous to suffer.

00:00 - Chapter 1. The Book of Lamentations
08:31 - Chapter 2. An Introduction to Wisdom Books in the "Ketuvim"
13:19 - Chapter 3. The Book of Proverbs
19:48 - Chapter 4. Structure of and Literary Components in The Book of Job
25:40 - Chapter 5. Prose Prologue in the Book of Job
30:36 - Chapter 6. Poetic Speech Cycles in the Book of Job
45:26 - Chapter 7. God's Response in the Book of Job

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu

This course was recorded in Fall 2006.