Course

# Geography by Rajtanil Solanki

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### Teacher Rajtanil Solanki

I provide (free) guidance, study material and tips for various competitive exams conducted in India (Civil Services, CSAT, Banking-sector, IBPS, CPF, APFC, CAT, CMAT, GPSC and other State PSC etc.).

## Course content

0h40m

### G1/P1: Longitudes, Latitudes, Timezones & Dateline

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:
1. Longitudes and Latitudes: definitions and concepts.
2. Why is there heat deficit and heat surplus regions on earth?
3. Reason for season on earth, Day and night time variation, from season to season
4. What are Solstice and equinox? UPSC-CSAT-2013 question on day-night time variation
5. Daylight saving in temperate regions
6. Longitude – prime meridian, International dateline (IDL)
7. How moving to west to IDL one day is lost and how moving to east of IDL one day is gained? Example of Russia and Alaska
8. Standard time: Indian standard time, Chaibaagan time zone issue
9. Exercises – calculation regarding standard time of a place
10. Solved UPSC CSAT Prelim Question 1999, 2006, 2008
11. Map explanations for Malacca strait, Strait of Florida, Strait of Gibraltar

Faculty Name: Ms. Rajtanil Solanki
Exam-Utility: UPSC CSAT, CDS, C

0h23m

### G1/P2: Earth’s Interior, S & P waves, Rock-Cycle, Geological Time-eras

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:
1. Origin of the earth, Nebular theory of Laplace
2. Speculation about earth’s interior: Heaviest elements are placed at the core and lighter elements are at the surface.
3. Interior of the earth: Density study, Temperature study, Direct and indirect evidences
4. SIAL and SIMA concepts- Edward Suess
5. Seismic wave studies: Propagation of S-Waves and P-Waves
6. Layers of earth’s interior: Lithosphere, asthenosphere, mantle, outer core, inner core.
7. Composition of interior of the earth and the crust.
8. Rocks of the continental crust
9. Rock-cycle (Igneous rock, sedimentary, metamorphous)
10. Properties of Igneous rocks
11. Properties of sedimentary rocks
12. Properties of metamorphous rocks
13. Prev. years question on rocks
14. Geological history of the earth: Super continent –Rodinia, Breaking up of Rodinia
15. Formation and breaking of Pangaea
16. What are Panthalasa
17. Laurasia, Gondwana and Tethys sea
18. Breaking up of Gondwana
19. Movement of

0h19m

### [Geography Lecture] G1/P3: Continental Drift Theory

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:
1. Alfred Wegener and his theory.
2. Evidences and Limitations of Continental drift theory
3. UPSC 2013 Mains question on this topic
4. Drawing maps for India and world in minutes.
5. Arthur Holmes: convection current theory
6. Driving force behind the continental drift
Faculty Name: Ms. Rajtanil Solanki
Exam-Utility: UPSC CSAT, CDS, CAPF

0h21m

### [Geography Lecture] G1/P4: Sea Floor Spreading Theory

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:
1. Beginning of Sea-floor spreading theory
2. Mapping of Sea-floor in 1950s
3. 3 questions raised after sea-floor mapping
4. Henry Hass and Dietz – theory
5. Mid- oceanic ridge – Mechanism and distribution in the world oceans,
6. Trenches - distribution in the world oceans, Mechanism of trenches, the Mariana trench – deepest trench of the world
7. UPSC Prelim 2006 q. on trench
8. Concept of Palaeo-magnetism, geomagnetism, Vine and Mattheus

Faculty Name: Ms. Rajtanil Solanki
Exam-Utility: UPSC CSAT, CDS, CAPF

0h30m

### G2/P1: Plate Tectonics Theory: The beginning, Oceanic Plates, Continental Plates

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:

1. Recap of the previous lecture: Latitude., Longitude, Solstice, equinox, Timezones, International Dateline, Earth Interior, Rock Cycle, Continental drift theory, Sea-floor spreading theory, Mid-oceanic ridge and trenches
2. Plate tectonic theory: Plates of the earth, property of interior rocks and how they affect interaction among the plates
3. Divergent plate boundary of oceanic plates and continental plates (conti. in next part of video)

Exam-Utility: UPSC CSAT, CDS, CAPF
Faculty Name: Ms. Rajtanil Solanki

0h23m

### G2/P2: Great African Rift Valley, World-Geography: Africa & S.E.Asian Islands

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:
1. (Conti. from previous part) Diagram of Phases of divergent continental plate
2. Rift valley – nascent sea – mid oceanic ridge
3. Great African rift valley, Nascent sea – red sea
4. Plates Knots: African Valley, Red Sea and Gulf of Kutch
5. Lakes around great African rift valley
6. Nile river – origin and important tributaries
7. Grand renaissance dam, Ethiopia & World History angles
8. Important Map-Locations in Africa, Prelim 2000 MCQ on African Lakes.
9. 3 Types of Convergent plate boundaries.
10. Ocean –ocean convergence, Island arcs
11. Mains 2014 question on ocean-ocean convergent boundary
12. World Geography: Important Islands of south East Asia
13. World Geography: Islands of Indian ocean and their significance in International diplomacy.

Exam-Utility: UPSC CSAT, CDS, CAPF
Faculty Name: Ms. Rajtanil Solanki

0h28m

### G2/P3: Fold Mountains & Convergent Plates: Andes, Rockies, Himalaya Fold Mountain

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:
1. Convergent plate boundary Explained
2. Volcanic mountain chain
3. World Geography: Andes mountain range, important locations around Andes
4. World Geography: Rockies mountain range, Grand canyon, important location around Rockies
5. Solved: Prelim and Mains Questions about Volcanic peaks and mountain ranges
6. Continental fold mountain chains Explained
7. Formation of Himalayas and Karakoram range
8. World Geography: Physical map of Europe, Alps range, Bosporus strait, important rivers and cities of Europe
9. Transform boundary explained.
10. San Andreas fault
11. Meteorite impact theory

Exam-Utility: UPSC CSAT, CDS, CAPF
Faculty Name: Ms. Rajtanil Solanki

0h21m

### G3/P1: Landform Types- Mountains Across the world

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:
1. Land forms on earth
2. Types of mountain – fold and block
3. Fold mountains: characteristics, Compressive force, building phases, Distribution across the world and their importance.
4. Pamir knot, Hindukush, Sulaiman, Kirthar and Ural Mountain range.
5. Block mountains: features, characteristics, tensile forces, distribution in Europe, India and Africa.
6. Comparison between fold mountains vs. block mountains

Exam-Utility: UPSC CSAT, CDS, CAPF, Civil Services Mains Examination
Faculty Name: Ms. Rajtanil Solanki

0h17m

### G3/P2: Landform Types: Plateaus across the world & Resources located in them

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:
1. Plateaus: meaning, formation, types
2. Map- Bolivia plateau, Columbia plateau
3. Map- Ozark plateau, Anatolia plateau
4. Map- Loess plateau, Laurentian plateau
5. Map- Katanga plateau, Africa
6. Map- plateau of Mato grasso, brazil
7. Map- Shan plateau, Myanmar
8. Map- Tibetan plateau
9. Batholith

Exam-Utility: UPSC CSAT, CDS, CAPF, Civil Services Mains Examination
Faculty Name: Ms. Rajtanil Solanki

0h14m

### G3/P3: Landform Types: Plains and Rivers of the world

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:
1. Plains: meaning, types, importance, distribution of important river plains of the world
2. China: Yangtze river and important locations nearby
3. W.Asia: Euphrates-Tigris rivers & important locations nearby
4. Brazil: Amazon river & important locations nearby
5. USA: Mississippi river & important locations nearby
6. Australia: Murray-darling basin & important locations nearby

Exam-Utility: UPSC CSAT, CDS, CAPF, Civil Services Mains Examination
Faculty Name: Ms. Rajtanil Solanki

0h33m

### G4/P1: Geophysical Phenomenon- Volcanism for GS Mains Paper1

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:
1. Volcanism: meaning, Distribution of Volcanos across the world
2. Volcanic Region of the world: Pacific ring of fire, Mid oceanic ridge
3. Mediterranean sea, Mediterranean sea, Hot spot volcanoes and Aleutian islands
4. Basaltic eruption vs. Andesitic eruption of volcanoes
5. Landforms: Volcanic landforms, Intrusive landforms, Extrusive landforms
6. Lava plateaus: Indian deccan lava plateau, Distribution of lava plateau in the world
7. Types of volcanic cones: Shield volcano, Cinder volcano, Composite volcano, Comparison of volcanic cones
8. Difference between geyser and hot spring;
9. Geo-thermal energy and its limitations

Exam-Utility: UPSC CSAT, CDS, CAPF, Civil Services Mains Examination
Faculty Name: Ms. Rajtanil Solanki

0h18m

### G4/P2: Geophysical Phenomenon- Earthquakes & Tsunamis for GS-Mains Paper1

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:
1. Earthquake: meaning and Mid oceanic ridge
2. Types of earthquake: shallow focus, intermediate focus, deep focus
3. Reasons for earthquake: Plate collision, divergence plate boundary, transverse plate boundary, Mediterranean sea, Craton , Human induced earthquakes
4. Tsunami: meaning, Comparison between normal sea waves and tsunami waves
5. Phrases of Tsunami
6. Indian preparedness of Tsunami

Exam-Utility: UPSC CSAT, CDS, CAPF, Civil Services Mains Examination
Faculty Name: Ms. Rajtanil Solanki

0h31m

### G5/P1: Ocean Resources, EEZ, petroleum reserves, Polymetallic nodules

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:
1. Understanding the Ocean bottom relief
2. Division of ocean bottom: continental-margins, mid oceanic ridge and deep sea plains
3. Ocean-continent margins: continental shelf, continental slope, continental rise
4. Continental shelf: Petroleum resources
5. Map Reading: Persian gulf, strait of Hormuz , Map: Barent sea, Russia,arctic sea
6. Resources from continental shelf: sulphur in gulf of Mexico; placer deposit – monazite, gold, diamond, zircon
7. Resources from continental shelf: pearls, calcium and fish
8. Continental slope: submarine canyon and submarine water fall
9. Continental rise: transition zone, absent near trenches
10. Deep sea plain/ abyssal plain and their resources
11. Poly-metallic nodules, their metal-components, global distribution, India’s exploration of PMN
12. UNCLOS- UN convention of Laws of the seas
13. Discussion of previous questions from UPSC Prelims

Exam-Utility: UPSC CSAT,

0h19m

### G5/P2: Coral Reefs & Marine Pollution

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:
1. Types of Islands in the world: continental, volcanic, sand –bar islands and coral islands, Atoll; and their examples
2. Coral reefs, their Formation: symbiotic relation of coral polyps and zooxanthalae
3. Condition for growth of coral reefs, their Spatial distribution.
4. Coral bleaching: meaning, Reasons for and global distribution
5. Formation of coral reef, Fringing reef and Barrier reef
6. Marine pollution- reasons, and Tar Balls.

Exam-Utility: UPSC CSAT, CDS, CAPF
Faculty Name: Ms. Rajtanil Solanki

0h39m

### G5/P3: Ocean Currents, Waves and Upwelling

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:
1. Motion of ocean water: horizontal (waves and currents), vertical (upwelling and tides)
2. Ocean currents: meaning, importance, distribution and factors responsible.
3. Effect of Insolation and Salinity gradients on the ocean currents
4. Factor modifying the ocean currents: coastline and coriolis force
5. Ocean currents of the world
6. North Atlantic currents
7. New foundland islands – meeting of warm and cold currents
8. Effect of North Atlantic drift, Effect of Canary current
9. Sargasso Sea
10. South Atlantic currents
11. Meeting of warm and cold currents at Bahia Blanca, New Foundland Islands, Japanese Coast
12. Currents of North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Indian Ocean, South Indian Ocean
13. Solution of UPSC Prelim Questions from 1997, 2002, 2012 and 2013.
14. Up-welling: Ekman layer, Ekman spiral, Ekman transport and their impact
15. Peruvian coast and other major Upwelling regions of the world
16. Down welling: meaning and Effects

Powerpo

0h24m

### G5/P4: Ocean Tides and Major Ports of India

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:
1. Vertical Motion of ocean water: tides
2. Ocean tides: meaning, Formation and importance
3. Highest tidal range in world and in India
4. Meaning of ebb and flow
5. Apogee and perigee tides
7. Spring tides and neap tides: meaning and comparison
8. Solution of UPSC Prelims questions from 2001, 2002 2004,
9. Tidal currents, Tidal bores
10. Meaning of estuary, Hooghly river: Kolkata riverine port
11. Examples of tidal ports: Kandla and Diamond harbour
12. Difference between tidal and non-tidal ports
13. 12 major ports of India
14. Tidal energy, location in India and world

Exam-Utility: UPSC CSAT, CDS, CAPF
Faculty Name: Ms. Rajtanil Solanki

0h25m

### G5/P5: Ocean Temperature, Annual & Diurnal Variations

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:
1. Recap of the topics covered in previous lecture of oceanography i.e. ocean bottom relief, continental shelf and its resources, Poly-Metallic nodules, Island types: 1) Continental 2) volcanic, 3) sand bar islands 4) coral islands, Coral reef: formation and condition for survival, coral bleaching, Motion of ocean water: horizontal (waves and currents)vertical (tides, upwelling-downwelling),
2. Ocean Temperature pattern at Latitudinal variation and hemispheric variation
3. Ocean Temperature pattern at enclosed sea and ocean currents
4. Ocean Temperature pattern at up-welling regions and down-welling regions
5. Annual and Diurnal range of temperature
6. Vertical distribution of temperature in oceans: thermocline, in tropical, temperate and polar region
7. Questions from this topic in previous UPSC Prelims exams

Exam-Utility: UPSC CSAT, CDS, CAPF
Faculty Name: Ms. Rajtanil Solanki
Venue: Sardar Patel In

0h16m

### G5/P6: Ocean Water Salinity & Salt Water Budget

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:
1. Salinity of ocean water: meaning
2. Salt budget of ocean water
3. Sources of salt in ocean water
4. Removal of salts from ocean water
5. Variation in salinity
6. Pattern in variation of salinity: comparison between equatorial water to tropical; comparison between northern and southern hemisphere
7. Local variation in salinity at ocean currents, enclosed sea, mouth of big rivers
8. Map: seas and mouth of big rivers- Mississippi into Gulf of Mexico, Amu Darya and Syr Darya into Aral sea , Black sea, Euphrates and Tigris into Persian gulf
9. Local variation in salinity: melting of glaciers
10. Vertical pattern of salinity

Exam-Utility: UPSC CSAT, CDS, CAPF
Faculty Name: Ms. Rajtanil Solanki

0h19m

### G6/P1: Climatology-Atmosphere structure, Aurora

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:
1. Origin of atmosphere on earth
2. Proportion of gases in atmosphere
3. Structure of atmosphere: Troposphere
4. Greenhouse effect in atmosphere
5. Stratosphere
6. Mesosphere
7. Noctilucent clouds
8. Thermosphere
9. Ionosphere and its layers
10. Exosphere
11. Aurora formation
12. Solving MCQs asked in UPSC Prelims 2011 and 2012.

Exam-Utility: UPSC CSAT, CDS, CAPF
Faculty Name: Ms. Rajtanil Solanki

0h33m

### G6/P2: Climatology- Heat budget, Temperature inversion

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:
1. Heat budget: meaning, incoming and outgoing heat
2. Albedo Meaning and pattern in different surfaces
3. Movement of air: advection and convection
4. Vertical movement of air: stability and instability
5. Low pressure and high pressure conditions