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European History by CrashCourse

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Crash Course European History Preview

0h06m

Medieval Europe: Crash Course European History #1

0h14m

Florence and the Renaissance: Crash Course European History #2

0h14m

The Northern Renaissance: Crash Course European History #3

0h14m

The Age of Exploration: Crash Course European History #4

0h15m

Expansion and Consequences: Crash Course European History #5

0h16m

The Protestant Reformation: Crash Course European History #6

0h15m

Reformation and Consequences: Crash Course European History #7

0h13m

Commerce, Agriculture, and Slavery: Crash Course European History #8

0h15m

Catholic Counter-Reformation: Crash Course European History #9

0h13m

Witchcraft: Crash Course European History #10

0h15m

The 17th Century Crisis: Crash Course European History #11

0h13m

Scientific Revolution: Crash Course European History #12

0h15m

Absolute Monarchy: Crash Course European History #13

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English Civil War: Crash Course European History #14

0h14m

Dutch Golden Age: Crash Course European History #15

0h13m

Eastern Europe Consolidates: Crash Course European History #16

0h15m

The Rise of Russia and Prussia: Crash Course European History #17

0h14m

The Enlightenment: Crash Course European History #18

0h16m

Enlightened Monarchs: Crash Course European History #19

0h13m

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0h06m

Crash Course European History Preview

John Green is teaching history again. This time, we're looking at the history of Europe in 50 episodes. We'll start at the tail end of the so called Middle Ages, and look at how Europe's place in the world has developed and changed in the last 700 years or so.

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Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever:

Eric Prestemon, Sam Buck, Mark Brouwer, Bob Doye, Jennifer Killen, Naman Goel, Nathan Catchings, Brandon Westmoreland, dorsey, Indika Siriwardena, Kenneth F Pentt

0h14m

Medieval Europe: Crash Course European History #1

Our European history is going to start around 1500 with the Renaissance, but believe it or not, that is not the actual beginning of history in the continent. So, today, we're going to teach you the broad outlines of the so-called Middle Ages, and look at events like the Black Plague, the Hundred Years War, and the Western Schism of the Catholic Church that set the stage for the history of modern Europe.

Aberth, John. The Black Death. The Great Mortality of 1348-1350. 2nd ed. Boston: Bedford St. Martin’s, 2017.
Huizinga, Johan. The Autumn of the Middle Ages. Trans. Rodney J. Payton and Ulrich Mammitzsch. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1996.
Hunt, Lynn et al. The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures. 6th ed. Vol. 1. Boston: Bedford St. Martin’s, 2019.
Kelley, Donald R. and Bonnie G. Smith. The Medieval and Early Modern World. Primary Sources and Reference. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Spielvogel, Jackson J. Western Civilization. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: T

0h14m

Florence and the Renaissance: Crash Course European History #2

The Renaissance was a cultural revitalization that spread across Europe, and had repercussions across the globe, but one smallish city-state in Italy was in many ways the epicenter of the thing. Florence, or as Italians might say, Firenze, was the home to a seemingly inordinate amount of the art, architecture, literature, and cultural output of the Renaissance. Artists like Michelangelo, Leonardo daVinci, Sandro Boticelli, and many others were associated with the city, and the money of patrons like the Medici family made a lot of the art possible. Today you'll learn about how the Renaissance came to be, and what impact it had on Europe and the world.

Our Sources:
Hunt, Lynn et al. The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures, 6th ed. Boston: Bedford St. Martins, 2019.
Donald R. Kelley, Renaissance Humanism. Boston: Twayne, 1991.

Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

Thanks to the following patrons for their gene

0h14m

The Northern Renaissance: Crash Course European History #3

The European Renaissance may have started in Florence, but it pretty quickly moved out of Italy and spread the art, architecture, literature, and humanism across Europe to places like France, Spain, England, and the Low Countries.

SOURCES:
Hunt, Lynn et al. The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures, 6th ed. Boston: Bedford St. Martins, 2019.
Jardine, Lisa. Erasmus, Man of Letters. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.
Donald R. Kelley, Renaissance Humanism. Boston: Twayne, 1991.

Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever:

Eric Prestemon, Sam Buck, Mark Brouwer, Laura Busby, Zach Van Stanley, Bob Doye, Jennifer Killen, Naman Goel, Nathan Catchings, Brandon Westmoreland, dorsey, Indika Siriwardena, Kenneth F Penttinen, Trevin Beattie, Erika & Alexa Saur, Glenn Elliott, Justin Zings

0h15m

The Age of Exploration: Crash Course European History #4

The thing about European History is that it tends to leak out of Europe. Europeans haven't been great at staying put in Europe. As human beings do, the people of Europe were very busy traveling around to trade, to spread religion, and in a lot of cases to try and conquer other people. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Europeans developed a bunch of tools and techniques that would allow them to travel around the world, in numbers and force heretofore unseen on the planet. And a lot of the results weren't great for the people who already lived in the places Europeans were "visiting."

Sources
Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe. Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration. New York: W. W. Norton, 2006.

Smith, Bonnie G. Modern Empires: A Reader. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.


Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course

0h16m

Expansion and Consequences: Crash Course European History #5

European exploration had a lot of side effects. When the Old World and the New World began to interact, people, wealth, food, animals, and disease began to flow in both directions. In the New World, countless millions were killed by smallpox, measles, and other Old World diseases. Old World animals changed life in the New World irrevocably, and the extraction of wealth and resources from the Americas ultimately contributed to the development of the Atlantic Slave Trade. So, it was an exchange with a lot of downside, especially for non-Europeans.

SOURCES
Pringle, Heather. “Sugar Masters in the New World,” Smithsonian Magazine, January 12, 2010,
Smithsonian.com https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/sugar-masters-in-a-new-world-5212993/
Seijas, Tatiana. Asian Slaves in Colonial Mexico: From Chos to Indians. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2009/10/pre-columbian-societies-knew-thing-about-extracting-gold
Smith, Bonnie G. Modern Empires: A

0h15m

The Protestant Reformation: Crash Course European History #6

You may have noticed that the internet is terrible at religious discourse. Well, this is not a new phenomenon. In the early 16th century, the Roman Catholic church dominated Christianity in Europe, and the institution was starting to show some cracks. Tensions mounted and protests grew, and eventually, the Protestant Reformation happened. Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the church door in Wittenberg, but the Reformation doesn't exactly begin with Luther, and it certainly doesn't end with him. Today, we're looking at how and why the Catholic church in Europe split, first into two sects, and eventually into a LOT of sects.

#crashcourse #europeanhistory #history

Sources:
Hunt, Lynn et al. Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures, 6th ed. (Boston: Bedford St Martins, 2019 ch. 14.
Kelley, Donald R. Beginning of Ideology: Consciousness and Society in the French Reformation. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981) ch. 1.
Smith, Bonnie G. Women in World History since 1450 (Lon

0h13m

Reformation and Consequences: Crash Course European History #7

The Protestant Reformation didn't exactly begin with Martin Luther, and it didn't end with him either. Reformers and monarchs changed the ways that religious and state power were organized throughout the 16th and early 17th centuries. Jean Calvin in France and Switzerland, the Tudors in England, and the Hugenots in France also made major contributions to the Reformation.

Sources
Hunt, Lynn. Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures. Boston: Bedford St. Martins, 2019. Ch. 14.
Kelley, Donald R. The Beginning of Ideology: Consciousness and Society in the French Reformation. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
Lindberg, Carter. The European Reformations. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley Blackwell, 2010.


Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever:

Eric Prestemon, Sam Buck, Mark Brouwer, Jo

0h15m

Commerce, Agriculture, and Slavery: Crash Course European History #8

We've been talking a lot about kings, and queens, and wars, and religious upheaval for most of this series, but let's take a moment to zoom out, and look at the ways that individuals' lives were changing in the time span we've covered so far. Some people's lives were improving, thanks to innovations in agriculture and commerce, and the technologies that drove those fields. Lots of people's lives were also getting worse during this time, thanks to the expansion of the Atlantic slave trade. And these two shifts were definitely intertwined.

Sources

Fuentes, Marisa. Dispossessed Lives: Enslaved Women, Violence, and the Archive. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016.

Seijas, Tatiana. Asian Slaves in Colonial Mexico: From Chinos to Indians. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Spielvogel, Jackson J. Western Civilization. 7th ed. Belmont: Thompson Wadsworth, 2009.

Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/cras

0h13m

Catholic Counter-Reformation: Crash Course European History #9

When the Protestant Reformation broke out in Western Europe, the Catholic Church got the message, at least a little bit. Pope Paul III called a council to look into reforming some aspects of the Catholic Church and try to stem the tide of competing Christian sects popping up all over the place. The Council of Trent changed some aspects of the organization, but doubled down on a lot of the practices that Martin Luther and other reformers had a problem with. Today you'll learn about the Council of Trent, the rise of the Jesuits, and Saint Teresa of Avila.

Sources

The Jesuits and Globalization. Historical Legacies and Contemporary Challenges. Thomas Banchoff and José Casanova, eds. (Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2016.

Rudolph Bell, “Teresa of Avila,” in Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History, Bonnie G. Smith, ed. New York: Oxford University Press 2008), 4: 213-214.

Natalie Z. Davis, Women on the Margins: Three Seventeenth-Century Lives (Cambridge: Harvard Univers

0h15m

Witchcraft: Crash Course European History #10

During our last several episodes, Europe and the European-controlled world have been in crisis. Wars, disease, climate changes, and shifts in religious and political power threw the European world into turmoil. People were looking for a scapegoat, and for many it was a time of magical thinking. So, maybe witches were responsible for all the problems? It was a popular idea, but, alas, the witches weren't responsible.

Sources:
Godbeer, Richard, ed. The Salem Witch Hunt: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin’s, 2018.

Kupperman, Karen. Indians and English: Facing Off in Early America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000. Plus additional personal communications.

Parker, Geoffrey. Global Crisis: War, Climate Change, and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2013.

Roper, Lyndall. Oedipus and the Devil: Witchcraft, Sexuality and Religion in Early Modern Europe. London: Routledge, 1994.

Roper, Lyndal. The Witch in the W

0h13m

The 17th Century Crisis: Crash Course European History #11

The 17th Century in Europe was pretty rough in a lot of ways. The Thirty Years War involved a lot of countries, and a lot of battles, and it was terrible for everyone involved, as wars have aa historical tendency to be. At the same time, disease and hunger were common, thanks in part to the climate change of the Little Ice Age. Get ready for some misery.

Sources
German History in Documents and Images: Volume 1. From the Reformation to the Thirty Years War, 1500-1648 A Local Apocalypse –The Sack of Magdeburg (1631).
http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/pdf/eng/85.SackMagdeburg_en.pdf

Parker, Geoffrey. Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century. New Haven: Yale, 2013.

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/researchers-catalogue-grisly-deaths-soldiers-thirty-years-war-180963531/ [for image of mass graves in Thirty Years War.

Wilson, Peter H. The Thirty Years War: A Sourcebook. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

https://www.newyorker.com

0h15m

Scientific Revolution: Crash Course European History #12

There was a lot of bad stuff going on in Europe in the 17th century. We've seen wars, plagues, and unrest of all types. But, there is some good news. Huge advances were underway in the scientific community in Europe at this time. In this video we'll look at the progress of knowledge with Galileo, Copernicus, Kepler, Harvey, Newton, and more.

Sources
-Hunt, Lynn et al. The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures, 6th ed. Boston: Bedford St. Martin’s, 2019.
-Porter, Roy and Mikulás Teich, eds. The Scientific Revolution in National Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
-Shapin, Steven. The Scientific Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever:

Eric Prestemon, Sam Buck, Mark Brouwer, Timothy J Kwist, Brian Thomas Gos

0h13m

Absolute Monarchy: Crash Course European History #13

So far, the rulers of Europe have been working to consolidate their power and expand their kingdoms, and this is it. The moment they've been working toward: Absolute Monarchy. We're going to learn about how kings and queens became absolute rulers in Europe, and where better to start than with Louis XIV of France, who is really the model for absolute rule.

Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever:

Eric Prestemon, Sam Buck, Mark Brouwer, Timothy J Kwist, Brian Thomas Gossett, HAIXIANG N/A LIU, Jonathan Zbikowski, Siobhan Sabino, Zach Van Stanley, Bob Doye, Jennifer Killen, Nathan Catchings, Brandon Westmoreland, dorsey, Indika Siriwardena, Kenneth F Penttinen, Trevin Beattie, Erika & Alexa Saur, Justin Zingsheim, Jessica Wode, Tom Trval, Jason Saslow, Nathan Taylor, Khaled El Shalakany, SR Foxl

0h14m

English Civil War: Crash Course European History #14

The English Civil War. We'll talk about England after Elizabeth, in which things didn't go that smoothly. We'll talk about James I, Charles I, Oliver Cromwell, Charles II, and James II, all of whom ruled England, (and tried to rule all of Britain and Ireland) with varying degrees of success.
Sources

-Hunt, Lynn et al. Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures. 6th ed. Boston: Bedford St. Martins, 2019.
-N. H. Keeble, ed. Cambridge Companion to Writing of the English Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
-Kent, Susan K. Gender and Power in Britain, 1640-1990. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Parker, Geoffrey, Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014.

Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever:

Eric

0h13m

Dutch Golden Age: Crash Course European History #15

While the English were falling apart a little, with their civil war and their restoration and their succession problems, the Dutch were getting their act together. They were throwing off the yoke of the Spanish Empire, uniting their provinces, and building out their global trade network. Today, we'll learn about how the Dutch came to their Golden Age, and how it ended.

Sources
-Hunt, Lynn. Making of the West. Peoples and Cultures. Boston: Bedford St. Martins, 2019.
-Parker, Geoffrey. Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014.
-Popkin, Richard. The History of Scepticism: From Savonarola to Bayle. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
-Rommelse, Gijs. "The role of mercantilism in Anglo-Dutch political relations, 1650–74." Economic History Review 63#3 (2010) pp. 591–611.
-Smith, Bonnie G. Modern Empires Reader. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017.


Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us d

0h15m

Eastern Europe Consolidates: Crash Course European History #16

While the focus has been on Western Europe so far, there has also been a lot going on in Eastern Europe, which we'll be looking at today. The Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania, The Ottoman Empire, and Russia were all competing at the eastern end of the continent/landmass of Europe at during the 16th century. You'll learn about the various Ivans in Russia, and the Time of Trouble that followed them, and you'll learn about the Ottomans' expansion into Europe. You'll also learn how the great power you may not have heard of, Poland-Lithuania was right in the middle of all these events, from the rise of the False Dmitry to the Battle of Vienna.

Sources
-Hosking, Geoffrey A. Russia: People and Empire, 1552-1917. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997.
-Hunt, Lynn et al. Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures. Boston: Bedford St. Martins, 2019.
-Kivelson, Valerie A. and Ronald Grigor Suny. Russia’s Empires. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017.
-Parker, Geoffrey. Global Crisis:

0h14m

The Rise of Russia and Prussia: Crash Course European History #17

In eastern Europe, in the 17th century a couple of "great powers" were coming into their own. The vast empire of Russia was modernizing under Peter the Great, and the relatively tiny state of Prussia was evolving as well. Russia (and Tsar Peter) reformed many aspects of Russian governance, realigning them toward the way things were done in western Europe. In Prussia, efficiency of institutions became a thing, and Prussia turned into "a large army with a small state attached."

Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever:

Eric Prestemon, Sam Buck, Mark Brouwer, Timothy J Kwist, Brian Thomas Gossett, Haxiang N/A Liu, Jonathan Zbikowski, Siobhan Sabino, Zach Van Stanley, Bob Doye, Jennifer Killen, Nathan Catchings, Brandon Westmoreland, dorsey, Indika Siriwardena, Kenneth F Penttinen, Trevin Beatti

0h16m

The Enlightenment: Crash Course European History #18

So far in this series, we've covered a lot of war, disease, climate disaster, and some more war. Well, prepare yourself for something a little more positive. This week, we're talking about the Enlightenment. In this video, you'll learn about the ideas of Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu, Kant, Smith, Hume, and a bunch of other people whose ideas have been so impactful, they still influence the way we think about the world today.

Sources

Hunt, Lynn et al. Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures. Boston: Bedford St. Martin’s, 2019.
Smith, Bonnie G. et al. World in the Making: A History. Vol. 2. New York: Oxford University Press, 2019.

Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever:

Eric Prestemon, Sam Buck, Mark Brouwer, Indika Siriwardena, Avi Yashchin, Timothy J Kwist, Brian Thomas Gossett,

0h13m

Enlightened Monarchs: Crash Course European History #19

Last time we learned about the Enlightenment, and the philosophers and thinkers whose ideas would shape governance for hundred of years. This week, we're learning how monarchs across Europe were influenced by those ideas. Adoption of Enlightenment ideas across Europe was...uneven, to say the least. In this episode you'll learn about Catherine the Great of Russia, Frederick the Great of Prussia, Maria Theresa of the Habsburg Dynasty, and Joseph II, her successor. We'll also get into the impact the Enlightenment had on a series of Louis in France.


Sources

-Elliot, John H. Empires of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in America, 1492-1830. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.
-Judson, Pieter M. The Habsburg Empire. A New History. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2016.
-Hosking, Geoffrey. Russia: People and Empire. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997.
-Spielvogel, Jackson J. Western Civilization. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Thompson Wadsworth, 2009.
-Vermes, Gábor. Hungarian C