Course Classes

Intermediate electronics by CircuitBread

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Vídeos

Outros

0h05m

How does a forward biased diode work at the molecular level? - Part 2 | Intermediate Electronics

We've gone over the PN junction of a diode in a previous video and now we're talking about when it's forward biased! This is when things get serious - understanding a forwarded biased PN junction not only helps in understanding how a diode works but practically any semiconductor devices - transistors, thyristor, TRIAC, photocouplers, etc. We're laying the foundation for conceptually understanding how *any* current electronic device works with this. Once we go over the reverse biased junction, it should all come together! Subscribe to CircuitBread for more videos on intermediate electronics!

To take things at your own speed, you can see the transcript of this video along with the animations at: https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/how-does-a-diode-work-part-2-forward-bias

Table of Contents:
0:25 Diode Basic Structure
0:43 Forward Bias
2:57 The Effect of Forward Bias on the Depletion Region
3:18 The Effect of the Barrier Potential During Forward Bias
3:51 Energy diagram at Forwar

0h04m

Band Gap and Semiconductor Current Carriers | Intermediate Electronics

What makes a semiconductor a semiconductor? For that matter, what makes an insulator an insulator and a conductor a conductor? It all comes down to how much energy it takes to pull an electron away from its nucleus! We delve into this and also talk about how not only electrons move but also the lack of electrons, or holes, move. It's kinda weird but pretty cool. Check it out!

Subscribe to CircuitBread for more videos on intermediate electronics! This video is on our website, as well as the animations and a written transcript: https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/band-gap-and-semiconductor-current-carriers

00:14 Parts of an Atom
00:37 Valence Band
01:00 Band Gap
01:19 Three Types of Materials used in Electronics and their Band Gaps
02:00 Current Carriers in a Semiconductor
03:34 Summary

For electronics tools, tutorials, equations and more check out our site: https://www.circuitbread.com

CircuitBread is joining the fight to help people more easily learn about and use electroni

0h04m

How do semiconductors work? (with animation) | Intermediate Electronics

Semiconductors may seem like magical devices but really, it's all about the electrons. We discuss what makes semiconductors special, how different materials change the way a semiconductor works, and what manufacturers do to make them useful. We also use fancy words like "pentavalent" and "trivalent" just to sound cool and put together interesting yet debatably scientifically accurate animations to show some concepts. Let us know what you think and put any questions in the comments below! To see the written transcript of this video, go check it out on CircuitBread.com - https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/basics-of-semiconductors

Subscribe to CircuitBread for more videos on Intermediate electronics!

Table of Contents
00:31 Definition of Semiconductors
00:55 Free Electrons and Holes
01:30 Intrinsic Semiconductors
01:41 Doping Process
02:00 Pentavalent Atoms
02:47 Trivalent Atoms
03:43 Extrinsic Semiconductors
04:04 Summary

For electronics tools, tutorials, equations and more c

0h05m

How does a diode work - the PN Junction (with animation) | Intermediate Electronics

To understand the definition of a diode you need to understand the...wait for it...PN Junction! We've gone over what semiconductors are in other videos but we finally start going over what you can use those semiconductor materials for. When semiconductors of different types are put next to each other, interesting things happen that can be used for a lot of different applications. In the most basic junction, the PN junction, a diode is formed. We lay the foundation of why a diode acts like it does when an n-doped material and a p-doped material are put together. It's crazy exciting stuff, because this is why you're able to watch this video on your phone. Seriously. Crazy, right?

For the transcript of this video with the animations embedded, check out the site: https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/how-does-a-diode-work-part-1-the-pn-junction

Table of Contents:
0:43 The PN Junction
1:03 Formation of the Depletion Region
1:52 Barrier Potential
2:26 Energy Diagram of the PN Junctio

0h05m

Classification of Semiconductors (Intrinsic/Extrinsic, P-Type/N-Type)

While strange at first glance, knowing the classification of semiconductors will help you understand what they are and why they act the way they do. We discuss what's happening at the molecular level in the crystal lattice of the semiconductor and the difference between undoped, or intrinsic semiconductors and doped, or extrinsic semiconductors.

Subscribe to CircuitBread for more videos on intermediate electronics! To see this as a written tutorial, along with helpful tools, go to: https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/classification-of-semiconductors

Table of Contents
01:25 Pure or Intrinsic Semiconductor
01:34 Doped or Extrinsic Semiconductor
01:47 Pentavalent (N-type) extrinsic semiconductor
02:56 Trivalent (P-type) extrinsic semiconductor
04:09 P-N Junction
04:26 Summary

For electronics tools, tutorials, equations and more check out our site: https://www.circuitbread.com

CircuitBread is joining the fight to help people more easily learn about and use electronics. With an eve

0h03m

How does a reverse biased diode work at the molecular level? - Part 3 | Intermediate Electronics

We've talked about the PN junction of a diode in a few videos and we're finally talking about when it is reverse biased! In this final chapter, we talk about what's happening on the molecular level that makes it so that current doesn't flow backwards in a diode and also what happens when the voltage is so great that there's an avalanche breakdown and actually does flow! Check out the written tutorial on CircuitBread here - https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/how-does-a-reverse-biased-diode-work-at-the-molecular-level-part-3

Subscribe to the CircuitBread channel for more videos on intermediate electronics!

Table of Contents:
0:15 Difference between forward bias and reverse bias
0:37 How the voltage pulls the carriers away from the depletion region
0:58 Why the depletion region widens under reverse bias
1:06 Energy band diagram of a reverse biased diode
1:54 Breakdown voltage and the avalanche effect
2:47 Summary

For electronics tools, tutorials, equations and more check out our

0h04m

How does an LED work at the molecular AND practical level? | Intermediate Electronics

Even though LED's are everywhere, there's still the question - how do LED's actually work?
Like... deep down on a molecular level? Well, we go over how these amazing LEDs work by discussing how the electrons lose energy, emit photons, and how scientists and engineers get specific colors. We also go over the way the semiconductor material is packaged into something that we can use. The written tutorial is also available on CircuitBread here - https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/how-does-an-led-work

If you find this interesting, subscribe to the CircuitBread channel for more videos on intermediate electronics!

The LED wavelength, color, and material table can be found here: https://www.circuitbread.com/tools/led-colors-and-materials-chart

Table of Contents:
0:17 How an LED is basically a diode
1:04 Forward biasing an LED
1:17 How electrons cross the PN junction, lose energy, and create photons
1:45 What an LED band diagram looks like when forward biased
2:15 How we get differ

0h06m

How to Use a Simple Microcontroller Part 1 - An Introduction (PIC10F200)

How do you use a simple microcontroller? In this intro to our Simple Microcontroller series, we go over the plans and expectations for a set of 15 tutorials that utilizes the one of the simplest and cheapest microcontrollers we could find, a PIC10F200. We discuss the importance of the lessons learned from these tutorials, both in understanding how microcontrollers work at their most fundamental level as well as how the low-level firmware that drives them works. We give some examples of the LED, robot, and communication projects that we will eventually go over and hopefully get you excited for this inexpensive, easy, yet foundational series on understanding basic microcontrollers.

The accompanying written tutorial, with a bit more detail and something you can go over at your leisure, is here: https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/how-to-use-a-simple-microcontroller-series-intro-pic10f200-part-1

If you find this interesting, subscribe to CircuitBread for more videos on microcontro

0h04m

How to Use a Simple Microcontroller (PIC10F200) Part 2 - Equipment Needed

In this second video tutorial about simple microcontrollers, we get a bit more logistics focused by going over what parts you will need to follow along with these PIC10F200 tutorials and why. It'll be good to get this stuff headed your way so that once we start actually turning on LEDs and controlling motors, you're not sitting around waiting for parts. We recommend checking out the written tutorial on CircuitBread so that you can review the parts list more easily - https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/equipment-for-our-simple-microcontroller-tutorials-pic10f200-part-2

If you find this interesting, subscribe to CircuitBread for more videos on microcontrollers and other beginner and intermediate electronics!

Table of Contents:
0:23 You'll need the microcontroller - PIC10F200 (preferably in a DIP package)
0:56 Compatible programmer/debugger (we recommend the PICKit 4 unless you already one)
1:50 The electronic components that will go on the bread board
2:39 You'll need a computer a

0h08m

Microcontroller Architecture - Part 3 Simple Microcontroller (PIC10F200) | Intermediate Electronics

Microcontrollers and microprocessors can seem like these nebulous things that just "do things" but they're very logical and well organized in their operation. We go over the internal architecture and how it works together at a high level. We discuss the program memory, the data memory, and make the program counter stack easy to understand. We also go over the specific pinout of the PIC10F200 so we know what we're dealing with for the practical examples that are coming up. See Sergey's high-quality written tutorial that this is based on at CircuitBread - https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/microcontroller-architecture-part-3-simple-microcontroller-pic10f200

If you find this interesting, subscribe to CircuitBread for more videos on microcontrollers and other beginner and intermediate electronics!

0:17 Why we use "Words" instead of "Bytes" when referring to how many instructions we can use.
1:23 PIC10F200 Stats, such as processor speed, available GPIOs, and pinout
3:33 Program or

0h06m

Getting Started with MPLAB X IDE - Part 4 Microcontroller Basics (PIC10F200)

In this last video before we get into the assembly program and actually program the PIC10F200 microcontroller, we go over the breadboard circuit setup and walk through the steps of setting up a project in MPLAB X IDE. Once we're done with this video, the only thing left will be to write the code and hit the build/upload button to get that program onto the PIC10F200. Next up - lit up LEDs!

We have a written version of this tutorial on our site:
https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/circuit-setup-mplab-x-ide-part-4-simple-microcontroller-pic10f200

If you find this interesting, subscribe to CircuitBread for more videos on microcontrollers and other beginner and intermediate electronics!

0:24 Review the breadboard, recognizing the microcontroller, LEDs, switches, and programming interface.
2:06 Introduction to MPLAB X IDE
2:27 Starting a project in MPLAB X IDE
3:48 Creating the main.asm file
4:48 Change MPLAB X settings so you can power your circuit with your PICKit 4

For electronic

0h14m

Your First Assembly Program - Part 5 Microcontroller Basics (PIC10F200)

Here it is! We've gone through four tutorials learning about how a PIC10F200 is organized internally, we've learned about the circuit, we've setup our IDE and our project, and now we finally program the PIC. In this tutorial, we go over our first assembly program line by line, learning the structure and foundational instructions needed to create a real program. At the end, we flash the firmware onto the PIC10F200 and watch the LED light up. Finally - our first assembly PIC10F200 hello world program! In the next tutorial, we're going to make it blink and then gradually make these programs more and more complex. Go get the code and see Sergey's awesome written tutorial on CircuitBread - https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/the-first-assembly-program-part-5-simple-microcontroller-pic10f200

If you find this interesting, subscribe to CircuitBread for more videos on microcontrollers and other beginner and intermediate electronics!

0:10 Our "Hello World" Assembly Program
0:46 Where

0h10m

How to Blink an LED - Part 6 Microcontroller Basics (PIC10F200)

In part 5, we made an LED turn on, which is nothing to sneeze at! In this tutorial, we're going to figure out how to blink an LED using assembly in MPLAB X IDE. By turning on an LED, running a delay subroutine, turning off the LED, running another delay subroutine, and doing that forever, you will get an LED that blinks at perfect intervals. Our video editor also created a great visual way to follow along on the code and make it super simple to blink an LED with this microcontroller. If you haven't watched our previous PIC10F200 microcontroller tutorials, we highly recommend you do so - it'll make this one make a LOT more sense! Go check out the written tutorial this is based on, with the code available to copy and paste, at the CircuitBread website - https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/how-to-blink-an-led-part-6-microcontroller-basics-pic10f200

If you find this interesting, subscribe to CircuitBread for more videos on microcontrollers and other beginner and intermediate elec

0h09m

Creating a PWM in Assembly - Part 7 Microcontroller Basics (PIC10F200)

Perhaps the most challenging PIC10F200 tutorial we've done to date, we discuss how to create a software PWM (pulse width modulation) in Assembly! We learn a few more Assembly commands, and then create the PWM itself. As this is involved and complicated, the video provides a good overview but we highly recommend checking Sergey's written tutorial on CircuitBread.com to be able to spend more time on it and review the details - https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/pwm-led-dimming-part-7-microcontroller-basics-pic10f200

If you find this interesting, subscribe to CircuitBread for more videos on microcontrollers and other beginner and intermediate electronics!

Table of Contents
0:28 Tutorial overview
1:26 Jumping into the program itself and learning about the "EQU" command
2:30 Starting on the LOOP
3:13 Introduction to the MOVF command
4:28 BTFSS - keep this straight!
7:30 A bit of a fail in regards to showing the LED being driven by the PWM...
8:00 Homework to have the PWM go from dim

0h03m

What is a zener diode and how does it work? | Intermediate Electronics

We've talked about the PN junction of a diode in several videos, describing how a diode works when forward biased, reverse biased, or just at equilibrium. In this video, we talk about what a Zener diode is, how it's different, why you usually reverse bias a Zener diode, and what's going on at the semiconductor level. This video is a great theoretical description and lays the groundwork for a practical demonstration of the usage of a Zener diode. There's a great written tutorial that accompanies this video as well on CircuitBread.com - https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/what-is-a-zener-diode-and-how-does-it-work

Subscribe to CircuitBread for more videos on intermediate electronics!

Table of Contents:
0:25 Why is it called a Zener diode?
0:57 How does a Zener diode act when reverse biased?
1:32 What are the different types of reverse breakdown?
2:30 What is the Zener knee and what happens as the reverse voltage is increased?

For electronics tools, tutorials, equations and more

0h08m

DIY Christmas Lights with a Microcontroller - Charlieplexing LEDs (PIC10F200) | Christmas Special

To celebrate the Christmas and holiday season, Sergey created a special tutorial to learn how to drive 6 (or more) LEDs with only the three GPIOs from the PIC10F200 through the power of charlieplexing. We don't learn any new commands nor really any new structures, but we learn how to use what we already know to control individual LEDs and make it so they can race up and down or through your LED array. Originally anticipated to be the lights in a Christmas tree, you can use this for any Christmas or non-Christmas embedded device. Check out Sergey's written tutorial with the code available on the CircuitBread website - https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/christmas-lights-special-microcontroller-basics-pic10f200

If you find this interesting, subscribe to CircuitBread for more videos on microcontrollers and other beginner and intermediate electronics!

Table of Contents
0:53 Introduction to charlieplexing
1:38 The table and schematic used to control the LEDs for charlieplexing in our

0h09m

Creating music with Assembly - Part 8 Microcontroller Basics (PIC10F200)

We've turned on LEDs, made them blink, and even have been able to do cool patterns using charlieplexing. But now... now we create music! Using a speaker and some basic PWM modulation, we create a circuit and the firmware to play "Für Elise". So, not only do you have the opportunity to learn greater precision and timing with delays and PWMs, you get to learn some very, very basic music theory. This is a fun one and a departure from the typical basic embedded system projects, so enjoy! To get the code and read Sergey's written tutorial that this is based on, go to the CircuitBread website - https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/musical-microcontroller-part-8-microcontroller-basics-pic10f200

If you find this interesting, subscribe to CircuitBread for more videos on microcontrollers and other beginner and intermediate electronics!

Table of Contents
0:22 Introduction to the basics of music theory
1:30 The frequencies for the different notes that Sergey has provided
2:50 Using magneti

0h13m

Using buttons with your microcontroller in Assembly - Part 9 Microcontroller Basics (PIC10F200)

Buttons! We've learned a lot of things over the last tutorials but we are going to bust open the amount of potential projects you can do with this one. In this tutorial, we cover how to scan for button inputs using a polling routine in assembly. The code we go over introduces some new commands and uses the delay routines we developed (and have used many times!) in the past. One of the nice things about this code is that it is modular and can be used over and over in other applications. Get the code and check out Sergey's written tutorial on the CircuitBread website - https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/button-inputs-part-9-microcontroller-basics-pic10f200

If you find this interesting, subscribe to CircuitBread for more videos on microcontrollers and other beginner and intermediate electronics!

Table of Contents
0:22 Overview of what we're going to do with the buttons
1:30 Starting the code and reviewing the "pipe" or "|" or "OR" bitwise operation
2:20 Overview of "polling"
3:

0h05m

What is a variable capacitor diode – how does it work? | Intermediate Electronics

Variable capacitors. Varicaps. Varactor diodes. Reactance diode. Tuning diode! So many names for a single thing. As we've reviewed semiconductor materials, PN junctions, and diodes, we've talked a lot about the depletion region. In this tutorial, we learn how we can use that depletion region and varying reverse bias to create something whose capacitance we can control. It's pretty cool. To see the transcript for this tutorial, go to the CircuitBread website - https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/what-is-a-variable-capacitor-diode-how-does-it-work

Subscribe to CircuitBread for more videos on intermediate electronics!

Table of Contents:
0:39 The different names of a variable capacitor.
0:51 How a capacitor works and how this relates to a PN junction.
1:13 The variables that changes capacitance
2:20 How to change the depletion region width
3:00 Applications for varicap diodes
3:24 Practical example of a varicap being used as a tuning diode

For electronics tools, tutorials, eq

0h04m

Animated BJT – How a Bipolar Junction Transistor works | Intermediate Electronics

Bipolar Junction Transistors, or BJT's, have been around for decades and was and are a fundamental portion of modern electronics and computing. For something as simple as two back-to-back PN junctions, these can be difficult to understand how they actually work at the semiconductor level. After laying the foundation for how they're built, we use some basic animations to demo how the electrons and holes move within the BJT to hopefully give you a more intuitive feel for what's going on when you apply a voltage at the different nodes. If this doesn't make sense - go check out our other intermediate electronics tutorials about semiconductors and PN junctions. I also highly recommend reading JB's written tutorial here for more in-depth information: https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/bipolar-junction-transistor-bjt-basic-structure-and-operation

Table of Contents:
0:23 Introduction to the bipolar junction transistor
0:41 The different physical regions of a bipolar junction transisto

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